Figure S1. Experimental setup and procedure for detecting MT unit activities and spike-triggered ACC responses Male C57BL/6J mice (4-8 weeks old) were initially anesthetized with 4% halothane (in 100% O2) in an acrylic box and animals were mounted on a stereotaxic apparatus and maintained under anesthesia with 2% halothane in 70%/30% nitrous oxide/oxygen throughout the surgery. Craniotomy was performed over the target areas (centered at 1.5 mm anterior, 0.5 mm lateral from Bregma for ACC and at 1.5 mm posterior, 0.5 mm lateral from Bregma for MT). A Michigan probe (University of Michigan Center for Neural Communication Technology, Ann Arbor, MI) with 16 contact points (100 μm interval spacing) was used to record the extracellular field potentials in the left ACC and the insertion angle of the probe was deflected to 40o from vertical. Another Michigan probe was used to record extracellular unit activities in the MT region and the insertion angle was perpendicular to the cortical surface. The sampling rate of recording signals was 6 kHz and the data were processed in a multichannel PC-based data acquisition system (TDT Inc., USA). The MT was located by searching for evoked nociceptive responses following peripheral noxious stimulation of the rat?s trunk and extremities. Once the nociceptive MT neurons were located, the spontaneous multichannel ACC field potentials and MT unit activities were sampled continuously with 762 Hz and 25 kHz respectively. After 30 min of data collecting, formalin (0.5 μl) was injected to the hind paw and data were recorded continuously for another hour. Spike-triggered averages of ACC field potentials were generated from the spontaneous activity of sorted MT units. We selectively analyzed thalamic bursting units by selecting only units that were preceded by a 50-100 ms silent period and a successive appearance of a second unit within 5 ms. The 1-D CSD values were calculated from the second spatial derivative of the field potential profile using the finite difference method. In CSD sweeps, current sinks are indicated by downward deflections and sources by upward deflections. Video S1. Animated 3-D imaging of DiI florescence tracing in mouse brain Fluorescence images of sagittal serial sections obtained from DiI-traced brains were reconstructed as stacks in a 3-D rendering program (Lightwave 3D?, NewTek, Inc., USA). The reconstructed signals were rotated in horizontally then vertically in a 3-D model to show the orientation of the thalamocingulate pathway in the stacked DiI tracing images relative to the brain. Video S2. Time series progression of the LFPs, CSD and trajectory path To express the dynamics of cortical responses to thalamic inputs, the LFPs, CSDs and trajectory path were plotted against time for example traces (below). To maintain full coverage of the electrodes, the data from the edge electrodes were duplicated to nearby outbound areas and the modified 10x10 data array was used to perform CSD calculations. CSD was calculated from field potential data with the 2-D CSD formula (Shimono et al., 2000). The trajectory path represents the center of mass of LFPs in the three consecutive components: N1, N2 and N3. Reference: Ken Shimono, Fernando Brucher, Richard Granger, Gary Lynch and Makoto Taketani. Origins and distribution of cholinergically induced beta rhythms in hippocampal slices. Journal of Neuroscience (2000), 20, 8462-8473.

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