Chronic interleukin-6 alters the level of synaptic proteins in hippocampus in culture and in vivo

Authors


Dr Donna L. Gruol, as above.
E-mail: gruol@scripps.edu

Abstract

There is now considerable evidence that the level of expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), is increased in the central nervous system (CNS) during neuroinflammatory conditions such as occurs in neurological disorders and in disease and injury. However, our understanding of the consequences of increased expression of IL-6 on the CNS is still limited, especially with respect to the developing nervous system, which is known to be particularly vulnerable to environmental factors. To address this issue, we investigated the properties of cultured hippocampal neurons exposed chronically to IL-6 during the main period of morphological and physiological development, which occurs during the first 2 weeks of culture. IL-6 was tested at 500 U/mL, considered to reflect a pathophysiologic concentration. The morphological features of neuronal development in the control and IL-6-treated cultures appeared similar. However, Western blot analysis showed a significant reduction in the level of Group-II metabotropic receptors (mGluR2/3) and L-type Ca2+ channels in the IL-6-treated cultures. A similar reduction in mGluR2/3 and L-type Ca2+ channel protein was observed in transgenic mice that over-express IL-6 in the CNS through astrocyte production starting early in development. Analysis of Ca2+ signals produced by spontaneous synaptic network activity in the hippocampal cultures and effects of a mGluR2/3 agonist and antagonist showed that the reduced levels of mGluR2/3 impact on the functional properties of hippocampal synaptic network activity. These results have important implications relative to the mechanisms responsible for altered CNS function during conditions associated with increased levels of IL-6 in the CNS.

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