It is well known that initial consolidation requires de novo gene transcription and protein synthesis in order for memory to become stable. The consolidated memory again becomes labile and temporarily sensitive to disruption when retrieved, requiring a reconsolidation process to become permanent. Although it is well established that glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) are required for consolidation of fear memory, little is known about their role in reconsolidation of fear memory. In the present study, we first examined the effect of a GR antagonist on postconditioning consolidation of auditory fear memory (AFM). Intra-BLA infusion of the GR antagonist RU486 0 h postconditioning impaired long-term AFM, leaving short-term AFM intact. RU486 had no effect if infusion was performed 6 h postconditioning. We then investigated the effect of the RU486 treatment on postretrieval reconsolidation of AFM. Severe amnesia took place when RU486 was infused into the BLA 0 h postretrieval (reactivation) of AFM, regardless of whether the retrieval was performed 1 day or 10 days postconditioning. RU486 produced no amnesia if the memory retrieval was omitted or if the drug was administered 6 h postretrieval. Treatment with RU486 0 h postretrieval produced no deficit in postretrieval short-term memory but impaired postretrieval long-term memory, and the amnesia exhibited no spontaneous recovery 6 days after retrieval. The present results provide strong evidence that glucocorticoid receptors in the BLA are required for reconsolidation as well as consolidation of AFM.