The administration of CD34-positive cells after stroke has been shown to have a beneficial effect on functional recovery by accelerating angiogenesis and neurogenesis in rodent models. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known to mobilize CD34-positive cells from bone marrow and has displayed neuroprotective properties after transient ischemic stress. This led us to investigate the effects of G-CSF administration after stroke in mouse. We utilized permanent ligation of the M1 distal portion of the left middle cerebral artery to develop a reproducible focal cerebral ischemia model in CB-17 mice. Animals treated with G-CSF displayed cortical atrophy and impaired behavioral function compared with controls. The negative effect of G-CSF on outcome was associated with G-CSF induction of an exaggerated inflammatory response, based on infiltration of the peri-infarction area with CD11b-positive and F4/80-positive cells. Although clinical trials with G-CSF have been started for the treatment of myocardial and limb ischemia, our results indicate that caution should be exercised in applying these results to cerebral ischemia.