Frontal and temporal functional connections of the living human brain


Dr G. Alarcón, as above.


Connections between human temporal and frontal cortices were investigated by intracranial electroencephalographic responses to electrical stimulation with 1-ms single pulses in 51 patients assessed for surgery for treatment of epilepsy. The areas studied were medial temporal, entorhinal, lateral temporal, medial frontal, lateral frontal and orbital frontal cortices. Findings were assumed to be representative of human brain as no differences were found between epileptogenic and non-epileptogenic hemispheres. Connections between intralobar temporal and frontal regions were common (43–95%). Connections from temporal to ipsilateral frontal regions were relatively uncommon (seen in 0–25% of hemispheres). Connections from frontal to ipsilateral temporal cortices were more common, particularly from orbital to ipsilateral medial temporal regions (40%). Contralateral temporal connections were rare (< 9%) whereas contralateral frontal connections were frequent and faster, particularly from medial frontal to contralateral medial frontal (61%) and orbital frontal cortices (57%), and between both orbital cortices (67%). Orbital cortex receives profuse connections from the ipsilateral medial (78%) and lateral (88%) frontal cortices, and from the contralateral medial (57%) and orbital (67%) frontal cortices. The high incidence of intralobar temporal connections supports the presence of temporal reverberating circuits. Frontal cortex projects within the lobe and beyond, to ipsilateral and contralateral structures.