Spinal cord injury often leads to permanent incapacity because long axons cannot regenerate in the CNS. Eph receptors inhibit axon extension through an effect on the actin cytoskeleton. We have previously reported that after injury EphA4 appears at high levels in stumps of corticospinal axons, while a cognate ligand, ephrinB2, is upregulated at the lesion site so as to confine the injured axons. In this study we have infused lesioned spinal cords with a peptide antagonist of EphA4. In treated animals the retrograde degeneration that normally follows corticospinal tract injury is absent. Rather, corticospinal tract axons sprout up to and into the lesion centre. In a behavioural test of corticospinal tract function, peptide treatment substantially improved recovery relative to controls. These results suggest that blocking EphA4 is likely to contribute to a future successful clinical treatment for spinal cord injury.