Fig. S1. The spectrum of blue light generated by the LCD projector largely overlaps with the absorption spectrum of ChR2. Fig. S2. The specific expression of ChR2-YFP in painless neurons in both sides of body segments shown by immunostaining. Fig. S3. Different electrophysiological properties of projection neurons and Kenyon cells. Video S1. Blue light-induced ?pain? responses in larvae with ChR2 expressed in painless neurons. Video S2. Confinement of free-moving larvae in a targeted area defined by the red light. Video S3. Guidance of larva movement by the blue light ring along a programmed path. Video S4. Blue light activation of sweet taste neurons expressing ChR2 induced the proboscis extension reflex in adult flies. Video S5. Blue light activation of the GF expressing ChR2 triggered the escaping response in adult flies.

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