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Keywords:

  • acetylcholine;
  • associative learning;
  • conditioned stimulus;
  • Fos;
  • posterior parietal cortex;
  • rat

Abstract

Changes in how well a conditioned stimulus (CS) predicts future events can alter the amount of attention paid to that cue. For example, the unexpected violation of a previously established relationship between a CS and another stimulus can increase attentional processing and subsequent conditioning to that cue [J.M. Pearce & G. Hall (1980)Psych. Rev., 106, 532–552]. Previous lesion studies have implicated the central nucleus of the amygdala (CN) and basal forebrain corticopetal cholinergic system in mediating surprise-induced changes in attention. Here, expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos was used to determine which cortical targets of the basal forebrain cholinergic system are activated during an increase in attentional processing. Consistent with previous studies, increased Fos expression was observed in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) when a visual stimulus no longer reliably predicted occurrence of a tone. Similar results were observed in the secondary auditory cortex; however, there were no significant changes in Fos expression in other auditory or visual cortices or in other cortical association areas that have been implicated in attentional function (frontal, cingulate or retrosplenial cortex). These findings support the notion that the PPC is the primary cortical component of a neural system mediating incremental changes in attention. In addition, an increase in Fos-positive cells was detected in the substantia innominata/nucleus basalis and the CN at the time of surprise. An opposite pattern of results was observed in the basal lateral nucleus of the amygdala, providing evidence for different stimulus-processing mechanisms in regions of the amygdala.