Neural correlates of arousal-induced circadian clock resetting: hypocretin/orexin and the intergeniculate leaflet


Dr Ian C. Webb, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6A 5C1.


In Syrian hamsters, some procedures for stimulating behavioural arousal (e.g. running in a novel wheel and sleep deprivation by gentle handling with minimal activity) markedly phase-advance circadian rhythms when applied during the middle of the daily rest period, while other arousal procedures do not (e.g. physical restraint, caffeine and modafinil). The neural basis for this differential effect of arousal procedures on clock resetting is unknown. We used c-fos expression as a marker for neuronal activation to determine whether these arousal procedures differentially activate two nonphotic inputs to the circadian system, the thalamic intergeniculate leaflet (IGL; a proposed nonphotic gateway to the circadian clock) and the hypothalamic hypocretin system (which depolarizes arousal-related cell groups throughout the brain and innervates both the IGL and the peri-suprachiasmatic nucleus region). c-FOS in hypocretin-1-immunoreactive neurons, in hypothalamic nonhypocretin neurons and in the IGL was significantly increased by novel wheel running, gentle handling and physical restraint, but only weakly by systemic injections of modafinil (300 mg/kg) or caffeine (75 mg/kg), at doses that are strongly alerting. Spatial analysis revealed few regional differences in the percentage of cells double-labelled for hypocretin-1 and c-FOS following each treatment. These results suggest that activation of hypocretin neurons (as in the restraint condition) is not sufficient to induce phase shifts, and that gating of arousal effects on circadian clock phase may be downstream from the hypocretin system and from IGL neurons activated by these procedures.