Present address: Laboratoire de Neuroscience Sensorielles, Comportement, Cognition, Université Lyon 1, 50 Avenue Tony Garnier, F-69007 Lyon, France.
Noradrenergic modulation in the olfactory bulb influences spontaneous and reward-motivated discrimination, but not the formation of habituation memory
Article first published online: 19 MAR 2008
© The Authors(2008)
European Journal of Neuroscience
Volume 27, Issue 5, pages 1210–1219, March 2008
How to Cite
Mandairon, N., Peace, S., Karnow, A., Kim, J., Ennis, M. and Linster, C. (2008), Noradrenergic modulation in the olfactory bulb influences spontaneous and reward-motivated discrimination, but not the formation of habituation memory. European Journal of Neuroscience, 27: 1210–1219. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06101.x
- Issue published online: 19 MAR 2008
- Article first published online: 19 MAR 2008
- Received 24 October 2007, revised 13 December 2007, accepted 16 January 2008
- olfactory bulb;
The mammalian main olfactory bulb receives a significant noradrenergic input from the locus coeruleus. Norepinephrine is involved in acquisition of conditioned odor preferences in neonatal animals and in some species-specific odor dependent behaviors. Thus far, the role of norepinephrine in odor processing in adult rats remains less studied. We tested the role of noradrenergic modulation in the olfactory bulb of cannulated rats by bilateral injections of vehicle (6 µL saline), the α noradrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine (3.15 or 10 mm), the β noradrenergic receptor antagonist alprenolol (12 or 120 mm), the α1 noradrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin (1 or 10−2 mm) and the α2 noradrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine (2 or 0.02 mm) 20 min before two different behavioral tasks. We found that local blockade of noradrenergic receptors in the olfactory bulb did not affect the formation of habituation memory to an odorant over sequential presentations separated by 5-min intertrial intervals. However, spontaneous discrimination between chemically related odorants was impaired when noradrenergic receptors, and in particular α1 receptors, were blocked by local antagonist infusion into the olfactory bulb. By contrast, discrimination was improved when β receptors were blocked. These results show that although the formation of a habituation memory to odorants is not affected by noradrenergic modulation, the specificity of this memory is affected. In contrast, reward-motivated discrimination learning was not impaired, but slowed down in rats in which both α and β receptors had been blocked.