Long-term depression (LTD) in CA1 pyramidal neurons can be induced by activation of either N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) or metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), both of which elicit changes in synaptic efficacy through α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. To address the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in regulating AMPAR endocytosis during these forms of LTD, we examined the effects of pharmacological inhibitors of proteasomal degradation and protein ubiquitination on endocytosis of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) -containing AMPARs in dissociated rat hippocampal cultures as well as LTD of excitatory synaptic responses in acute rat hippocampal slices. Our findings suggest that the contribution of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to NMDAR-induced vs. mGluR-induced AMPAR endocytosis and the consequent LTD differs significantly. NMDAR-induced AMPAR endocytosis and LTD occur independently of proteasome function but appear to depend, at least in part, on ubiquitination. In contrast, mGluR-induced AMPAR endocytosis and LTD are enhanced by inhibition of proteasomal degradation, as well as by the inhibitor of protein ubiquitination. Furthermore, the decay of mGluR-induced membrane depolarization and Erk activation is delayed following inhibition of either ubiquitination or proteasomal degradation. These results suggest that, although NMDAR-dependent LTD may utilize ubiquitin as a signal for AMPAR endocytosis, mGluR-induced signaling and LTD are limited by a feedback mechanism that involves the ubiquitin-proteasome system.