Increasing evidence points to accelerated neurogenesis after stroke, and support of such endogenous neurogenesis has been shown to improve stroke outcome in experimental animal models. The present study analyses post-stroke cerebral cortex after cardiogenic embolism in autoptic human brain. Induction of nestin- and musashi-1-positive cells, potential neural stem/progenitor cells, was observed at the site of ischemic lesions from day 1 after stroke. These two cell populations were present at distinct locations and displayed different temporal profiles of marker expression. However, no surviving differentiated mature neural cells were observed by 90 days after stroke in the previously ischemic region. Consistent with recent reports of neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex after induction of stroke in rodent models, the present current data indicate the presence of a regional regenerative response in human cerebral cortex. Furthermore, observations underline the potential importance of supporting survival and differentiation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells in post-stroke human brain.