Fig. S1. Example of VTA recording data and recording site.

Fig. S2. The difference in responses to CSav and CS−.

Fig. S3. Changes in the proportion of responsive neurons to either CS during sessions 1–16.

Fig. S4. Examples of neurons recorded on the same channel during several sessions across the contingency reversal.

Fig. S5. Effects of sugar pellet delivery and shock on VTA neurons.

Fig. S6. VTA neural response profiles to CSs and USs.

Fig. S7. Comparison of the neural responses of different firing rate VTA neuron groups.

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