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Fig. S1. Modeling spiny dendrites of Purkinje and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. (A–B) Rendering of modeled pyramidal and Purkinje spiny dendrites. Spines were drawn from a random distribution based on the range of values reported for each spine type. Both models are shown with a spine density of 5 spines/mm. (C–H) Histograms of total spine length, head diameter, and neck diameter values used for the modeled spines. (I–J) Histogram of head-to-neck diameter ratio calculated from the modeled spines.

Fig. S2. Single image planes for pyramidal and Purkinje cell dendrites shown in Figs 2 and 4. (A–B) dendrites that are smooth or have a low number of spines. (C–D) spiny dendrites.

Fig. S3. Quantification of the effect of measuring in short dendritic segments on the value of the anomalous exponent (dw). (A) Plots of the solution for 1D diffusion (\C={1\over \sqrt{4\pi D}}e^{-x^{2}/4 Dt}\). (B) Concentration of molecules as a function of time and monitored dendritic segment length. (C) Log-log transform of data in B. The diffusion coefficient as Dfree/10.

Fig. S4. Relationship of spine density and dendritic geometry effects on anomalous diffusion in CA1 pyramidal cells. (A) The value of the anomalous exponent (dw) is not correlated to dendritic diameter (r = 0.07, not significant). (B) The fraction of dendritic area occupied by dendritic spines strongly correlates with dw (r = 0.74, significant).

Table S1. Structural parameters of CA1 pyramidal and Purkinje (PC) cells from published data (CA1 and PC columns) and range of values used for computational modeling (CA1 model and PC model columns). Ranges (mean, S.D). Spine density over a dendrite of 1 mm in diameter.

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