Evidence suggests that the acquisition of recognition memory depends upon CREB-dependent long-lasting changes in synaptic plasticity in the perirhinal cortex.The CREB-responsive microRNA miR-132 has been shown to regulate synaptic transmission and we set out to investigate a role for this microRNA in recognition memory and its underlying plasticity mechanisms. To this end we mediated the specific overexpression of miR-132 selectively in the rat perirhinal cortex and demonstrated impairment in short-term recognition memory. This functional deficit was associated with a reduction in both long-term depression and long-term potentiation. These results confirm that microRNAs are key coordinators of the intracellular pathways that mediate experience-dependent changes in the brain. In addition, these results demonstrate a role for miR-132 in the neuronal mechanisms underlying the formation of short-term recognition memory.