Propofol-ketamine vs propofol-fentanyl for sedation during pediatric upper gastrointestinal endoscopy


Z. Tosun, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Erciyes University School of Medicine, 38039 Talas, Kayseri, Turkey. (email:;


Background:  The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of propofol-ketamine with propofol-fentanyl in pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE).

Methods:  This was a prospective, randomized, double blinded comparison of propofol-ketamine with propofol-fentanyl for sedation in patients undergoing elective UGIE. Ninety ASA I–II, aged 1 to 16-year-old patients were included in the study. Heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure, peripheral oxygen saturation, respiratory rate (RR) and Ramsey sedation scores of all patients were recorded perioperatively. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either propofol-ketamine (PK; n = 46) or propofol-fentanyl (PF; n = 44). PK group received 1 mg·kg−1 ketamine + 1.2 mg·kg−1 propofol, and PF group received 1 μg·kg−1 fentanyl + 1.2 mg·kg−1 propofol for sedation induction. Additional propofol (0.5–1 mg·kg−1) was administered when a patient showed discomfort in either group.

Results:  The number of patients who needed additional propofol in the first minute after sedation induction was eight in Group PK (17%), and 22 in Group PF (50%) (P < 0.01) and those who did not need additional propofol throughout the endoscopy were 14 in Group PK (30%) and three in Group PF (7%) (P < 0.01). HR and RR values after induction in Group PF were significantly lower than Group PK (P < 0.01).

Conclusions:  Both PK and PF combinations provided effective sedation in pediatric patients undergoing UGIE, but the PK combination resulted in stable hemodynamics and deeper sedation though more side effects.