Introduction: A balanced volume replacement strategy is a well established concept for correcting hypovolemia using plasma adapted isotonic crystalloid solutions with a physiological electrolyte pattern and acetate as bicarbonate precursor. Recently, third-generation hydroxyethyl starch (HES) has also become available in a balanced electrolyte solution instead of normal saline. Therefore, in this prospective non-interventional clinical study, the perioperative administration of HES 130/0.42/6 : 1 in normal saline (ns-HES) and in balanced electrolyte solution (bal-HES) was evaluated in children with a focus on acid-base, electrolyte and hemoglobin changes.
Methods: Following local ethics committee approval, pediatric patients aged up to 12 years with an ASA risk score of I–III undergoing perioperative administration of HES (ns-HES from May 2006 to December 2007, bal-HES from January 2008 to January 2009) were included. Patient demographics, the performed procedure, adverse drug reactions, hemodynamic data and the results of blood gas analysis were documented with a focus on changes in acid-base, electrolyte and hemoglobin concentrations.
Results: Of 396 enrolled patients (ASA I–III; age 2.3 ± 3, range day of birth – 12 years; body weight 10.8 ± 9, range 0.9–52 kg), 249 received ns-HES and 147 bal-HES (mean volume infused 9.9 ± 4 and 9.4 ± 6.9 ml·kg−1, respectively). After HES infusion, hemoglobin decreased in both groups, whereas bicarbonate and base excess (BE) decreased only with ns-HES and remained stable with bal-HES (BE before infusion: ns-HES −1.8 ± 2.8, bal-HES −1.7 ± 2.7 mmol·l−1; after infusion: ns-HES −2.6 ± 2.4; bal-HES −1.6 ± 2.6 mmol·l−1, P < 0.05). Chloride (Cl) concentrations increased in both groups and were significantly higher with ns-HES (Cl before infusion: ns-HES 105.6 ± 3.7, bal-HES 105.1 ± 2.8 mmol·l−1; after infusion: ns-HES 107.7 ± 3.2, bal-HES 106.3 ± 2.9 mmol·l−1, P < 0.01). No serious adverse drug reactions were observed.
Conclusion: Infusion related iatrogenic acid-base and electrolyte alterations can be minimized by using hydroxyethyl starch in a balanced electrolyte solution instead of normal saline.