Local anesthetics and their adjuncts


  • Jean-Xavier Mazoit

    1.  Département d’Anesthésie-Réanimation, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, AP-HP, Le Kremlin-Bicětre, France
    2.  Laboratoire d’anesthésie INSERM UMR 788, Université Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
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This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Local anesthetics and their adjuncts Volume 22, Issue 6, 612, Article first published online: 17 May 2012

  • Section Editor: Per-Arne Lonnqvist

Jean-Xavier Mazoit,
Laboratoire d’anesthésie INSERM UMR788, Faculté de Médecine, F-94276 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, Cedex France
Email: jean-xavier.mazoit@u-psud.fr


Local anesthetics (LA) block propagation of impulses along nerve fibers by inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels, which initiate action potentials (1). They act on the cytosolic side of phospholipid membranes. Two main chemical compounds are used, amino esters and amino amides. Amino esters are degraded by pseudocholinesterases in plasma. Amino amides are metabolized exclusively by the liver. Only amide LAs will be considered in this article.