• rigid bronchoscope;
  • intravenous anesthesia;
  • spontaneous ventilation;
  • propofol;
  • remifentanil


Purpose:  To investigate the efficacy and safety of propofol–remifentanil total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and spontaneous ventilation for foreign body (FB) removal in pediatric patients with preoperative respiratory impairment.

Methods:  We carried out a prospective observational clinical study of FB removal using a rigid bronchoscope under propofol–remifentanil TIVA and spontaneous ventilation in 65 pediatric patients who presented with preoperative respiratory impairment. Heart rate, blood pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), respiratory rate, endtidal CO2 (ETCO2), induction time, and remifentanil rate were recorded. Adverse events, the intervention for these events, and the duration of postoperative care were also of interest.

Results:  Sixty children completed the study. The mean induction time was 12.3 min. During the procedure, the maximum remifentanil rate was 0.14 μg·kg−1·min−1. Light breath holding occurred in 16 (26.7%) patients. No severe breath holding or body movements were observed. An SpO2 below 90% occurred in 10 (16.7%) cases. No progressive desaturation was observed. The mean ETCO2 at the end of the procedures was 7.91 KPa and returned to normal 5 min after the procedure. In the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), no hypoxemia was observed and the mean recovery time was 23.4 min. No laryngospasm, pneumothorax, or arrhythmias were observed.

Conclusion:  Propofol–remifentanil TIVA and spontaneous ventilation are effective and safe techniques to manage anesthesia during airway FB removal in children with preoperative respiratory impairment.