SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aber, J.D., Nadelhoffer, K.J., Steudler, P. & Melillo, J.M. (1989). Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems. Bioscience, 39, 378386.
  • Aber, J., McDowell, W., Nadelhoffer, K., Magill, A., Bernstson, G., Kamakea, M. et al. (1998). Nitrogen saturation in Temperate forest ecosystems. Bioscience, 48, 921934.
  • Alban, D.H. (1982). Effects of nutrient accumulation by aspen, spruce, and pine on soil properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 46, 853861.
  • Barker, T.C., Dickinson, R. & Hardie, D.W.F. (1956). The origins of the synthetic alkali industry in Britain. Economica, New Series, 23, 158171.
  • Bedford, B.L., Walbridge, M.R. & Aldous, A. (1999). Patterns in nutrient availability and plant diversity of temperate North American wetlands. Ecology, 80, 21512169.
  • Biostat, Inc. (1999). Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software. Biostat, Englewood, NJ.
  • Bock, M.D. & Van Rees, K.C.J. (2002). Forest harvesting impacts on soil properties and vegetation communities in the Northwest Territories. Can. J. For. Res., 32, 713724.
  • Bradbury, I.K. & Malcolm, D.C. (1977). The effect of phosphorus and potassium transpiration, sleaf diffusive resistance and water-use efficiency in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) seedlings. Appl. Ecol., 14, 631641.
  • Brady, N.C. & Weil, R.R. (2001). The Nature and Properties of Soils, 13th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • Britton, D.L. (1991). Fire and the chemistry of a South African mountain stream. Hydrobiologia, 218, 177192.
  • Castro, M.S. & Morgan, R.P. II (2000). Input/output budgets of major ions for a forested watershed in western Maryland. Water Air Soil Pollut., 119, 121137.
  • Chapman, P.J., Edwards, A.C. & Cresser, M.S. (2001). The nitrogen composition of streams in upland Scotland: some regional and seasonal differences. Sci. Tot. Environ., 265, 6583.
  • Comerford, N.B., Lamson, N.I. & Leaf, A.L. (1980). Measurement and interpretations of growth responses of Pinus resinosa Ait. to K-fertilization. For. Ecol. Manage., 2, 253267.
  • Compton, J.E. & Boone, R.D. (2000). Long-term impacts of agriculture on soil carbon and nitrogen in New England forests. Ecology, 81, 23142330.
  • Covelo, F. & Gallardo, A. (2002). Effect of pine harvesting on leaf nutrient dynamics in young oak trees at NW Spain. For. Ecol. Manage., 167, 161172.
  • Cummings, K. (2002). A History of Glassforming. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadephia, PA.
  • Van Den Driessche, R. (1974). Prediction of mineral nutrient status of trees by foliar analysis. Bot. Rev., 40, 347395.
  • Van Den Driessche, R. & Ponsford, D. (1995). Nitrogen induced potassium deficiency in white spruce (Picea glauca) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) seedlings. Can. J. For. Res., 25, 14451454.
  • Epstein, E. (1994). The anomaly of silicon in plant biology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 91, 1117.
  • Erdmann, G.G., Crow, T.R. & Rausher, H.M. (1988). Foliar nutrient variation and sampling intensity for Acer rubrum trees. Can. J. For. Res., 18, 134139.
  • Ericsson, T. & Kähr, M. (1993). Growth and nutrition of birch seedlings in relation to potassium supply rate. Trees, 7, 7885.
  • Evans, H.J. & Sorger, G.J. (1966). Role of mineral elements with emphasis on the univalent cations. Ann. Rev. Plant Phys., 17, 4776.
  • Eviner, V. (2004). Plant traits that influence ecosystem processes vary independently among species. Ecology, 85, 22152229.
  • Fahey, T.J., Battles, J.J. & Wilson, G.F. (1998). Responses of early successional northern hardwood forests to changes in nutrient availability. Ecol. Monogr., 68, 183212.
  • Fenn, M.E., Poth, M.A., Aber, J.D., Baron, J.S., Bormann, B.T., Johnson, D.W. et al. (1998). Nitrogen excess in North American ecosystems: predisposing factors, ecosystem responses, and management strategies. Ecol. Appl., 8, 706733.
  • Flückiger, W. & Braun, S. (1998). Nitrogen deposition in Swiss forests and its possible relevance for leaf nutrient status, parasite attacks and soil acidification. Environ. Pollut., 102, 6976.
  • Forti, M.C., Boulet, R., Melfi, A.J. & Neal, C. (2000). Hydrochemistry of a small catchment in northeastern Amazonia: a comparison between natural with deforested parts of the catchment (Serra Do Navio, Amapá state, Brazil). Water Air Soil Pollut., 118, 263279.
  • Franklin, O., Hogberg, P., Ekblad, A. & Agren, G.I. (2003). Pine forest floor carbon accumulation in response to N and PK additions: Bomb C-14 modelling and respiration studies. Ecosystems, 6, 644658.
  • Fredriksen, R. (2002). Long-Term Stream Chemistry Patterns: Andrews Experimental Forest Watershed Proportional Samples: Long-Term Ecological Research. Forest Science Data Bank, Corvallis, OR. CF002 [Database]. Available at: http://www.fsl.orst.edu/lter/data/abstract.cfm?dbcode=CF002 (accession on 17 September 2004).
  • Garrison, M.T., Moore, J.A., Shaw, T.M. & Mika, P.G. (2000). Foliar nutrient and tree growth response of mixed-conifer stands to three fertilization treatments in northeast Oregon and north central Washington. For. Ecol. Manage., 132, 183198.
  • Gleeson, S.K. & Good, R.E. (2003). Root allocation and multiple nutrient limitation in the New Jersey Pinelands. Ecol. Lett., 6, 220227.
  • Gurevitch, J., Morrow, L.L., Wallace, A. & Walsh, J.S. (1992). A metaanalysis of field experiments on competition. Am. Nat., 140, 539572.
  • Hall, J.A. (1948). Wood in an industrial world. Sci. Monthly, 67, 398405.
  • Hamilton, S.K. & Lewis, W.M. Jr (1987). Causes of seasonality in the chemistry of a lake on the Orinoco river floodplain, Venezuela. Limnol. Oceanogr., 32, 12771290.
  • Hanley, M.E. & Fenner, M. (1997). Seedling growth of four fire-following Mediterranean plant species deprived of single mineral nutrients. Funct. Ecol., 11, 398405.
  • Hedges, L.V. & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical Methods for Meta-Analysis. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • Hedin, L.O., Armesto, J.J. & Johnson, A.H. (1995). Patterns of nutrient loss from unpolluted, old-growth temperate forests: evaluation of biogeochemical theory. Ecology, 76, 493509.
  • Heiberg, S.O., Madgwick, H.A.I. & Leaf, A.L. (1964). Some long-term effects of fertilization on red pine plantations. For. Sci., 10, 1723.
  • Hodson, M.J. & Sangster, A.G. (1998). Mineral deposition in the needles of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss]. Ann. Botany, 82, 275285.
  • Holopainen, T. & Nygren, P. (1989). Effects of potassium deficiency and simulated acid rain, alone and in combination, on the ultrastructure of Scots pine needles. Can. J. For. Res., 19, 14021411.
  • Huntington, T.G., Hooper, R.P., Johnson, C.E., Aulenbach, B.T., Cappellato, R. & Blum, A.E. (2000). Calcium depletion in a southeastern United States forest ecosystem. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64, 18451858.
  • Jacobson, S. & Pettersson, F. (2001). Growth responses following nitrogen and N–P–K–Mg additions to previously N-fertilized Scots pine and Norway spruce stands on mineral soils in Sweden. Can. J. For. Res., 31, 899909.
  • Jobbágy, E.G. & Jackson, R.B. (2001). The distribution of soil nutrients with depth: global patterns and the imprint of plants. Biogeochemistry, 53, 5177.
  • Johnson, D.W., West, D.C., Todd, D.E. & Mann, L.K. (1982). Effects of sawlog vs. whole-tree harvesting on the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium budgets of an upland mixed oak forest. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 46, 13041309.
  • Johnson, D.W., Richter, D.D., Lovett, G.M. & Lindberg, S.E. (1985). The effects of atmospheric deposition on potassium, calcium, and magnesium cycling in two deciduous forests. Can. J. For. Res., 15:773782.
  • Jones, H.E., Harrison, A.F. & Dighton, J. (1987). A 86Rb bioassay to determine the potassium status of trees. New Phytol., 107:695708.
  • Jönsson, A.M. & Nihlgård, B. (2004). Slash pile burning at a Norway spruce clear-cut in southern Sweden. Water Air Soil Pollut., 158, 127135.
  • Kaushal, S.S. & Lewis, W.M. Jr (2003). Patterns in the chemical fractionation of organic nitrogen in Rocky Mountain streams. Ecosystems, 6, 483492.
  • Kawana, A., Xydias, G.K. & Leaf, A.L. (1969). Response of Pinus resinosa Ait. plantations to potassium fertilization on a potassium-deficient site. Plant Soil, 30, 439445.
  • Kilmer, V.J., Younts, S.E. & Brady, N.C. (eds) (1968). The Role of Potassium in Agriculture. Am. Soc. Agron/Crop Sci. Soc. Am./Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison, WI, USA.
  • Knecht, M.F. & Göransson, A. (2004). Terrestrial plants require nutrients in similar proportions. Tree Phys., 24, 447460.
  • Koo, R.C.J. (1968). Potassium nutrition of tree crops. In: The Role of Potassium in Agriculture (eds Kilmer, V.J., Younts, S.E. and Brady, N.C.) Am. Soc. Agron/Crop Sci. Soc. Am., Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, WI, pp. 469487.
  • Kunimatsu, T., Hamabata, E., Sudo, M. & Hida, Y. (2001). Comparison of nutrient budgets between three forested mountain watersheds on granite bedrock. Water Sci. Tech., 44, 129140.
  • Lamontagne, S., Carignan, R., D'Arcy, P., Prairie, Y.T. & Paré, D. (2000). Element export in runoff from eastern Canadian Boreal Shield drainage basins following forest harvesting and wildfires. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci., 57(Suppl. 2), 118128.
  • Lea, R., Tierson, W.C., Bickelhaupt, D.H. & Leaf, A.L. (1980). Differential foliar responses of northern hardwoods to fertilization. Plant Soil, 54, 419439.
  • Leigh, R.A. & Wyn Jones, R.G. (1984). A hypothesis relating critical potassium concentrations for growth to the distribution and functions of this ion in the plant cell. New Phytol., 97, 113.
  • Lewis, W.M. Jr & Saunders, J.F. III (1989). Concentration and transport of dissolved and suspended substances in the Orinoco river. Biogeochemistry, 7, 203240.
  • Likens, G.E. & Bormann, F.H. (1995). Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem, 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, USA.
  • Likens, G.E., Bormann, F.H., Johnson, N.M., Fisher, D.W. & Pierce, R.S. (1970). Effects of forest cutting and herbicide treatment on nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook watershed-ecosystem. Ecol. Monogr., 40, 2347.
  • Likens, G.E., Driscoll, C.T., Buso, D.C., Siccama, T.G., Johnson, C.E., Lovett, G.M. et al. (1994). The biogeochemistry of potassium at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry, 25, 61125.
  • Lucanus, B. (1865). Versuche über Die Erziehung einiger Land: pflanzen in wässriger Lösung. Landwirthsch Versuchs-stat, 7, 363371.
  • Maathuis, F.J.M. & Sanders, D. (1996). Mechanisms of potassium absorption by higher plant roots. Physiol. Plantarum, 96, 158168.
  • Marschner, H. (1995). Potassium. In: Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 299312.
  • Mika, P.G. & Moore, J.A. (1990/91). Foliar potassium status explains Douglas fir response to nitrogen fertilization in the inland northwest, USA. Water Air Soil Pollut., 54, 477491.
  • Mohme, F.S. (1929). The potash industry of Europe. Econ. Geogr., 5, 141148.
  • Moore, J-D., Camiré, C. & Ouimet, R. (2000). Effects of liming on the nutrition, vigor, and growth of sugar maple at the Lake Clair watershed, Québec, Canada. Can. J. For. Res., 30:725732.
  • Nowak, C.A., Downard, R.B. Jr & White, E.H. (1991). Potassium trends in red pine plantations at Pack Forest, New York. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 55, 847850.
  • Oosterhuis, D.M. & Berkowitz, G.A. (eds) (1996). Frontiers in K Nutrition: New Perspectives on the Effects of K on Physiology of Plants. Potash and Phosphorus Institute, Potash and Phosphorus Institute of Canada (Publ), Norcross, GA, USA.
  • Ouimet, R. & Fortin, J.M. (1992). Growth and foliar nutrient status of sugar maple: incidence of forest decline and reaction to fertilization. Can. J. For. Res., 22, 699706.
  • Perakis, S.S. & Hedin, L.O. (2002). Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds. Nature, 415, 416419.
  • Pfirrmann, T., Barnes, J.D., Steiner, K., Schramel, P., Busch, U., Küchenhoff, H. et al. (1996). Effects of elevated CO2, O3, and K deficiency on Norway spruce (Picea abies): nutrient supply, content and leaching. New Phytol., 134, 267278.
  • Pisani, D.J. (1985). Forests and conservation, 1865–1890. J. Am. History, 72, 340359.
  • Ray, S.R. (1988). Physical and chemical characteristics of headwater streams at Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed, Alaska. Master of Science Thesis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, 172pp.
  • Rustad, L.E., Campbell, J.L., Marion, G.M., Norby, R.J., Mitchell, M.J., Hartley, A.E. et al. (2001). A meta-analysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and aboveground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming. Oecologia, 126, 543562.
  • Salih, N. & Andersson, F. (1999). Nutritional status of a Norway spruce stand in SW Sweden in response to compensatory fertilization. Plant Soil, 209, 85100.
  • Salmon, C.D., Walter, M.T., Hedin, L.O. & Brown, M.G. (2001). Hydrological controls on chemical export from an undisturbed old-growth Chilean forest. J. Hydrol., 253, 6980.
  • Sarjala, T. & Kaunisto, S. (1993). Needle polyamine concentrations and potassium nutrition in Scots pine. Tree Phys., 13, 8796.
  • Schaefer, D.A., McDowell, W.H., Scatena, F.N. & Asbury, C.E. (2000). Effects of hurricane disturbance on stream water concentrations and fluxes in eight tropical forest watersheds of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. J. Trop. Ecol., 16, 189207.
  • Shaw, T.M., Moore, J.A. & Marshall, J.D. (1998). Root chemistry of Douglas-fir seedlings grown under different nitrogen and potassium regimes. Can. J. For. Res., 28, 15661573.
  • Shepard, J.P. & Mitchell, M.J. (1990). Nutrient cycling in a red pine plantation thirty-nine years after potassium fertilization. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 54, 14331440.
  • Sterner, R.W. & Elser, J.J. (2002). Ecological Stoichiometry. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Stevens, P.A., Harrison, A.F., Jones, H.E., Williams, T.G. & Hughes, S. (1993). Nitrate leaching from a Sitka spruce plantation and the effect of fertilization with phosphorus and potassium. For. Ecol. Manage., 58, 233247.
  • Sun, O.J. & Payn, T.W. (1999). Magnesium nutrition and photosynthesis in Pinus radiate: clonal variation and influence of potassium. Tree Phys., 19, 535540.
  • Tilman, E.A., Tilman, D., Crawley, M.J. & Johnston, A.E. (1999). Biological weed control via nutrient competition: potassium limitation of dandelions. Ecol. Appl., 9, 103111.
  • Triboulot, M-B., Pritchard, J. & Levy, G. (1997). Effects of potassium deficiency on cell water relations and elongation of tap and lateral roots of maritime pine seedlings. New Phytol., 135, 8390.
  • Tuininga, A.R., Dighton, D. & Gray, D.M. (2002). Burning, watering, litter quality and time effects on N, P, and K uptake by pitch pine (Pinus rigida) seedlings in a greenhouse study. Soil Biol. Biochem., 34, 865873.
  • Uebel, E. & Heinsdorf, D. (1997). Results of long-term K and Mg fertilizer experiments in afforestation. For. Ecol. Manage., 91, 4752.
  • Uhl, C. & Jordan, C.F. (1984). Succession and nutrient dynamics following forest cutting and burning in Amazonia. Ecology, 65, 14761490.
  • Vitousek, P.M. (1977). The regulation of element concentrations in mountain streams in the northeastern United States. Ecol. Monogr., 47, 6587.
  • Vitousek, P.M. (2004). Nutrient Cycling and Limitation: Hawai'i as a Model System. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Vitousek, P.M., Aber, J.D., Howarth, R.W., Likens, G.E., Matson, P.A., Schindler, D.W. et al. (1997). Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol. Appl., 7, 737750.
  • Voigt, G.K., Richards, B.N. & Mannion, E.C. (1964). Nutrient utilization by young pitch pine. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 28, 707709.
  • Vroblesky, D.A., Yanosky, T.M. & Siegel, F.R. (1992). Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination. Environ. Geol. Water Sci., 2, 7174.
  • Wallander, H. & Wickman, T. (1999). Biotite and microcline as potassium sources in ecto-mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Mycorrhiza, 9, 2532.
  • Warren, J.M., Allen, H.L. & Booker, F.L. (1999). Mineral nutrition, resin flows, and phloem phytochemistry in loblolly pine. Tree Phys., 19, 655663.
  • Williams, M.W., Baron, J.S., Caine, N., Sommerfeld, R. & Sanford, R. (1996). Nitrogen saturation in the Rocky Mountains. Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 640646.
  • Williams, M., Hopkinson, C., Rastetter, E., Vallino, J. & Claessens, L. (2005). Relationships of and use and stream solute concentrations in the Ipswich River basin, northeastern Massachusetts. Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 161, 5574.
  • Wilmot, T.R., Ellsworth, D.S. & Tyree, M.T. (1996). Base cation fertilization and liming effects on nutrition and growth of Vermont sugar maple stands. For. Ecol. Manage., 84, 123134.
  • Yates, E.J., Ashwath, N. & Midmore, D.J. (2002). Responses to nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium chloride by three mangrove species in pot culture. Trees, 16, 120125.
  • Ylimartimo, A. (1990/91). The effect of nitrogen and potassium availability on scleroderris canker of Scots pine seedlings. Water Air Soil Pollut., 54, 307313.
  • Zhang, S. & Allen, H.L. (1996). Foliar nutrient dynamics of 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) following nitrogen fertilization. Can. J. For. Res., 26, 14261439.