Colourful coexistence of red and green picocyanobacteria in lakes and seas

Authors

  • Maayke Stomp,

    1. Aquatic Microbiology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 127, 1018 WS Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Jef Huisman,

    Corresponding author
    1. Aquatic Microbiology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 127, 1018 WS Amsterdam, The Netherlands
      * E-mail: jef.huisman@science.uva.nl
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  • Lajos Vörös,

    1. Balaton Limnological Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 35, H-8237 Tihany, Hungary
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  • Frances R. Pick,

    1. Biology Department, University of Ottawa, PO Box 450, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
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  • Maria Laamanen,

    1. Finnish Institute of Marine Research, PO Box 2, FIN-00561 Helsinki, Finland
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    • Present address: Ministry of the Environment, PO Box 35, FIN-00023 Government, Finland.

  • Thomas Haverkamp,

    1. Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, PO Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke, The Netherlands
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  • Lucas J. Stal

    1. Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, PO Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke, The Netherlands
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* E-mail: jef.huisman@science.uva.nl

Abstract

Hutchinson's paradox of the plankton inspired many studies on the mechanisms of species coexistence. Recent laboratory experiments showed that partitioning of white light allows stable coexistence of red and green picocyanobacteria. Here, we investigate to what extent these laboratory findings can be extrapolated to natural waters. We predict from a parameterized competition model that the underwater light colour of lakes and seas provides ample opportunities for coexistence of red and green phytoplankton species. To test this prediction, we sampled picocyanobacteria of 70 aquatic ecosystems, ranging from clear blue oceans to turbid brown peat lakes. As predicted, red picocyanobacteria dominated in clear waters, whereas green picocyanobacteria dominated in turbid waters. We found widespread coexistence of red and green picocyanobacteria in waters of intermediate turbidity. These field data support the hypothesis that niche differentiation along the light spectrum promotes phytoplankton biodiversity, thus providing a colourful solution to the paradox of the plankton.

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