The relationship between mating systems and dispersal has generally been studied at the population and species levels. It has hardly ever been investigated at the individual level, by studying the variations of mating and dispersal strategies between individuals. We investigated this relationship in a natural population of the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). Assuming that dispersal has a genetic basis, juvenile dispersal would be expected to be more family-dependent in monoandrous litters than in polyandrous litters. The opposite pattern was observed. Thus, maternal effects and/or litter effects play a greater role than genetic determinism in shaping the dispersal phenotype of juveniles. Moreover, the relationship between female mating strategy and offspring dispersal depended on litter success, in a way consistent with an influence of mother-offspring competition. Such a link between mating and dispersal strategies of individuals may have major repercussions for the way we consider the roles of these processes in population functioning.