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Figure S1. Change in proportion of cell type 1 (A) and 2 (B) during trial 2 of the mesocosm filtration experiment for all treatments with more than one species. Negative values indication net filtration while positive values indicate net growth of phytoplankton. A *indicates differences between a polyculture and the native only polyculture. During trial 1 for both cell types, all polycultures that include exotic species removed a greater proportion of cells.

Figure S2. Change in proportion of cell type 1 (A) and 2 (B) during trial 2 of the mesocosm filtration experiment for all treatments with only one species. Negative values indication net filtration while positive values indicate net growth of phytoplankton. A *indicated a difference between an exotic species and its most similar native species. Note the decreased ner filtration in Botrylloides violaceous and Didemnum for both cell types.

Figure S3. The number of days where invertebrate settlement is above a threshold of 10 settlers per day from simulations of different community composition using data from 2003–2007. Circles represent the average of simulated communities of all natives along with all possible combinations of exotic species at different levels of diversity. Diamonds represent the average of simulated communities with all natives together with the exotic invertebrate with the highest number of days above the settlement threshold. Squares represent that best exotic invertebrate alone.

Figure S4. Mean temporal coefficient of variation in recruitment for all combinations of exotic species at a particular level of diversity plus natives. Data are from simulations using settler counts from the Mason’s Marina. Different symbols represent results for different years (open squares: 2003, open circles: 2004, crosses: 2005, closed circles: 2006, closed triangles: 2007).

Figure S5. Stacked plots showing patterns of native (black) and non-native (grey) species settlement at Mason’s Marina, Bodega Bay, CA, USA in 2003–2007. Note that, while in some years peaks of settlement are distinct, in others they overlap by a large amount.

Figure S6. The number of days where invertebrate settlement is above a threshold of five settlers per day from simulations of different community composition using data from Mason’s Marina in 2003–2007. Simulation results are averaged for each level of exotic species richness. Simulations used every possible combination of exotic invertebrates. We then calculated the number of days above the settlement threshold three different ways: (i) total settlement of the simulated exotic community added to the total settlement of all natives (Circles); (ii) settlement of the invertebrate from that simulation with the highest number of days above the threshold added to the settlement of all natives (Diamonds); and (iii) settlement of the exotic invertebrate from that simulation with the highest number of days above the threshold alone, without natives (Squares). The number of days above the settlement threshold for native species alone is equivalent to the number of days above a threshold of the natives + the average best exotic species (Diamonds) at an exotic species richness of 1, as in all cases the number of days above a threshold for the best exotic species alone at a richness of 1 was 0.

Table S1. manova table for the effect of treatment on proportion change in cell type 1 and 2 (B) during trial 2 of the mesocosm filtration experiment.

Table S2. Contrast tables for proportion change in cell type 1 (A) and 2 (B) during trial 2 of the mesocosm filtration experiment. Contrasts are broken up by hour. Within each hour, contrasts are broken up by trial due to the trial × treatment interaction. Note, estimated differences and error are on a log scale.

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