Figure S1 (a) A domatium of a Cordia nodosa ant-plant, with floral buds. Here, the leaves are still expanding. (b) An Allomerus worker attacking a C. nodosa floral bud. (c) Allomerus alate larvae in a domatium with workers and brood, demonstrating space limitation. Photograph credits Mark Moffett and Douglas Yu.

Figure S2Nseed as a function of C with different values of α.

Figure S3 The time evolution of traits.

Figure S4 Snapshot analysis at low plant density, = 0.7, t = 500 000.

Table S1 Ant densities and the evolution of castration level C.

Text S1 Census locations.

Text S2 Mean-field model of the one ant-one plant system.

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