Understanding relationships among multiple ecosystem services

Authors

  • Elena M. Bennett,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Natural Resource Sciences and McGill School of Environment, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Rd., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada, H3X 3V9
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  • Garry D. Peterson,

    1. Department of Geography and McGill School of Environment, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 2K6
    2. Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    3. Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, S-10691, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • Line J. Gordon

    1. Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, S-10691, Stockholm, Sweden
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E-mail: elena.bennett@mcgill.ca

Abstract

Ecology Letters (2009) 12: 1394–1404

Abstract

Ecosystem management that attempts to maximize the production of one ecosystem service often results in substantial declines in the provision of other ecosystem services. For this reason, recent studies have called for increased attention to development of a theoretical understanding behind the relationships among ecosystem services. Here, we review the literature on ecosystem services and propose a typology of relationships between ecosystem services based on the role of drivers and the interactions between services. We use this typology to develop three propositions to help drive ecological science towards a better understanding of the relationships among multiple ecosystem services. Research which aims to understand the relationships among multiple ecosystem services and the mechanisms behind these relationships will improve our ability to sustainably manage landscapes to provide multiple ecosystem services.

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