Appendix S1 Scaling-up of trait-based data to the community level to reveal trait-divergence assembly patterns related to ecological variables (Pillar et al. 2009).

Appendix S2 Plant traits used for description of species populations in a natural grassland experiment in south Brazil. All traits were taken as ordinal. See Pillar et al. (2009) for details.

Appendix S3 (a) Categorical matrix of plant species by clades (matrix F) from higher monophyletic groups (e.g. Monocots, Eudicots) to families and genera. Phylogenetic relationships established according to APG (2003). (b) Categorical matrix of plant species by clades [matrix F, see (a)] after numerical coding.

Appendix S4 Principal Coordinates Analysis ordination based on the phylogenetic structure of grassland communities in south Brazil under experimental levels of nitrogen (0–200 kg-N ha−1 year−1) and grazing intensity (4–14% of forage allowance).

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