Figure S1 Schematic diagram of the model.

Figure S2 The distribution of infection rates for two macroparasite species.

Figure S3 Age-abundance relationships in response to changing infection rates.

Figure S4 Stratifying the host population by age to detect parasite interactions.

Figure S5 The effect of correlated infection rates for both parasite species.

Figure S6 The effect of interspecific interactions acting on macroparasite fecundity.

Figure S7 The relationship between host age and macroparasite burdens.

Figure S8 Fitted spline for the relationship between host age and macroparasite FEC.

Table S1 Parameter definitions and baseline parameter values.

Table S2 Further GLMM analyses.

Appendix S1 Model details, and further information.

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