Figure S1 An example of mapped and modeled polygons.

Figure S2 Observed and predicted genet survival.

Figure S3 Observed and predicted genet growth.

Figure S4 Observed and predicted recruitment.

Figure S5 Observed and simulated genet size distributions.

Figure S6 Observed and simulated spatial patterns.

Figure S7 Invasion growth rates and species abundances simulated by the individual based model.

Figure S8 Analysis of variance of the recruitment, growth, and survival interaction coefficients.

Figure S9 Species persistence in a constant environment.

Figure S10 The time required to reach equilibrium abundances in IPM simulations.

Figure S11 Model selection for survival of P. spicata.

Table S1 Parameter estimates for the survival, growth and recruitment models.

Table S2 The spatial scale of species interactions.

Appendix S1 Detailed methodology.

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