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Table S1 Distribution of Arsenophonus amongst parasitoid wasps and their host flies. Infection was evidenced through PCR amplification of a fragment of Arsenophonus 16S rRNA gene. One parasitoid female per host fly pupa has been checked for infection, minimizing the risk of sampling sibling individuals.

Table S2 Genes and primer features. For reference to the Arsenophonus nasoniae genome ORFs, see Darby et al. (2010).

Table S3 Amplifiability, diversity and characteristics of the three MLST genes from typing of 14 Arsenophonus isolates. Two genes (ftsK and yaeT) showed positive PCR amplification for all the Arsenophonus isolates, but one for 13 isolates (fbaA with the Arsenophonus strain of the fire bug Pyrrhocoris apterus failing to amplify). The DnaSP program (Librado & Rozas 2009) was used to calculate the number of polymorphic site, the %GC content, and the pairwise ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (Ka/Ks). We used Sawyer’s test procedure (Sawyer 1989) implemented in GENECONV (Sawyer 1999) to perform statistical analysis for intragenic recombination (10 000 permutations).

Table S4 Maternal inheritance of Arsenophonus nasoniae infection through generations F3–F6 post-transfer (F1 and F2 are presented in Table 1). Infection was evidenced through PCR amplification of a fragment of A. nasoniae 16S.

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