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Table S1 Results of phylogenetic least-squares regressions for the 16 clades in Table 1, showing the robustness of the main results to alternate root ages for Plethodontidae (48 and 69 Myr vs. 61 Myr).

Table S2 Constant rate tests and Monte Carlo constant rate tests for species diversification in each of the 16 focal clades (root age = 48 Myr).

Table S3 Constant rate tests and Monte Carlo constant rate tests for species diversification in each of the 16 focal clades (root age = 61 Myr).

Table S4 Constant rate tests and Monte Carlo constant rate tests for species diversification in each of the 16 focal clades (root age = 69 Myr).

Table S5 Relationship between estimated values of the gamma statistic (from constant rates test) for each clade and clade age, net diversification rate and species richness, using three different root ages for Plethodontidae.

Table S6 Comparison of the fit of Brownian motion (BM) and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) models of evolution to climatic variation in the 16 focal clades of plethodontid salamanders in Table 1.

Table S7 The proportion of each clade’s total area in which two or more of its species are sympatric (prop. overlap) and the maximum number of species from each clade that are regionally sympatric (max. sympatric).

Table S8 Alternative clade divisions that lump (10 clades) or further subdivide (22 clades) many of the 16 focal clades in Table 1. Clade ages, net diversification rates (using e = 0.45), and rates of climatic-niche evolution are based on a root age of 61 Myr for Plethodontidae.

Table S9 Results of phylogenetic least-squares regressions of the association between diversification rate, rate of climatic niche-evolution, two indices for geographic overlap of species within clades: the proportion of the clade's range in which two or more species have overlapping ranges (prop. overlap) and the maximum number of sympatric species within the clade (max. sympatric).

Table S10 Results of phylogenetic least-squares regressions employing maximum and minimum values (within each species) for the 20 environmental variables, rather than mean values. Rates of climatic-niche evolution for each clade were calculated by summing the diagonal elements of the evolutionary variance-covariance matrix for PC1-PC3 (see text). Clade divisions follow Table 1.

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