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Figure S1 The effects of treatments on live aboveground biomass (error bars are + 1 standard error).

Figure S2 A flow chart representing the 4-factor incomplete factorial design (resulting in eight unique experimental treatments).

Figure S3 Photograph of a vegetation tie-back.

Figure S4 Average monthly temperature and precipitation as measured by a weather station located 200 m from the experiment.

Figure S5 The response of total plant species richness to shade cloth and fertilization (a), tiebacks and fertilization (b), and clipping and fertilization (c) in wet and drought years (+ 1 standard error).

Figure S6 Contrasts of the response of total plant species richness to drought versus wet years in the presence of shade cloth and fertilization (a), tie-backs and fertilization (b), and clipping and fertilization (c) (+ 1 standard error).

Figure S7 The relationship between environmental variables and either sown species richness or plot-level total species richness.

Table S1 Characteristics of species sown in 2003 and 2004.

Table S2 Protocols used to measure different variables and to analyze and present data.

Table S3 Split-plot, repeated-measures anova analyses of species richness (significant effects are in bold).

Table S4 The effects of treatments on different environmental variables (NA refers to data that were collected outside subplots with tie-backs; * <  0.05, ** <  0.01, *** < 0.001).

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