Appendix S1 Data origin.

Appendix S2 Scarabaeinae phylogeny used in the analyses.

Appendix S3 Additional nestedness analyses.

Figure S1 Geographical distribution in Europe of current mean annual temperature and temperature variability since the LGM.

Figure S2 Geographical distribution of the coefficient of determination (r2) of the species richness–temperature variability GWR model for each grid cell.

Figure S3 Geographical distribution of the values of the Net Relatedness Index (NRI) for each grid cell.

Figure S4 Species richness of the seven Scarabaeinae tribes with European representatives.

Table S1 Results of the OLS models for all Europe, and the southern and northern areas identified in this work.

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