Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honey bee visits

Authors

  • Lucas A. Garibaldi,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratorio de Ecotono, INIBIOMA-CONICET and CRUB-UNCOMA, Quintral 1250, 8400 Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina
    2. Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos y Sistemas de Información, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Martín 4453, 1417 Buenos Aires, Argentina
      E-mail: garibald@agro.uba.ar
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  • Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter,

    1. Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, Biozentrum, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
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  • Claire Kremen,

    1. Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA
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  • Juan M. Morales,

    1. Laboratorio de Ecotono, INIBIOMA-CONICET and CRUB-UNCOMA, Quintral 1250, 8400 Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina
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  • Riccardo Bommarco,

    1. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 7044, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
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  • Saul A. Cunningham,

    1. CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
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  • Luísa G. Carvalheiro,

    1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, Private Bag X7, Claremont 7735, South Africa
    2. Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
    3. Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    4. NCB-Naturalis, postbus 9517, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
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    • Between Luísa Carvalheiro and Rachael Winfree, we choose an alphabetical order of authors, as they contributed equally to this synthesis.

  • Natacha P. Chacoff,

    1. Instituto de Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Aridas, CCT CONICET Mendoza, CC 507, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina
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  • Jan H. Dudenhöffer,

    1. Agroecology, Georg August University Göttingen, Grisebachstr. 6, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
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  • Sarah S. Greenleaf,

    1. Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA
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  • Andrea Holzschuh,

    1. Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, Biozentrum, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
    2. Agroecology, Georg August University Göttingen, Grisebachstr. 6, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
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  • Rufus Isaacs,

    1. Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
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  • Kristin Krewenka,

    1. Agroecology, Georg August University Göttingen, Grisebachstr. 6, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
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  • Yael Mandelik,

    1. Department of Entomology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
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  • Margaret M. Mayfield,

    1. The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Goddard Building, St Lucia Campus, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
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  • Lora A. Morandin,

    1. Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA
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  • Simon G. Potts,

    1. Centre for Agri-Environmental Research, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, RG6 6AR, UK
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  • Taylor H. Ricketts,

    1. Conservation Science Program, WWF, Washington D.C., USA
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  • Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi,

    1. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Kraków, Poland
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  • Blandina F. Viana,

    1. Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-210, Ondina, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
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  • Catrin Westphal,

    1. Agroecology, Georg August University Göttingen, Grisebachstr. 6, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
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  • Rachael Winfree,

    1. Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
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  • Alexandra M. Klein

    1. Institute of Ecology, Section Ecosystem Functions, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg, Germany
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E-mail: garibald@agro.uba.ar

Abstract

Ecology Letters (2011) 14: 1062–1072

Abstract

Sustainable agricultural landscapes by definition provide high magnitude and stability of ecosystem services, biodiversity and crop productivity. However, few studies have considered landscape effects on the stability of ecosystem services. We tested whether isolation from florally diverse natural and semi-natural areas reduces the spatial and temporal stability of flower-visitor richness and pollination services in crop fields. We synthesised data from 29 studies with contrasting biomes, crop species and pollinator communities. Stability of flower-visitor richness, visitation rate (all insects except honey bees) and fruit set all decreased with distance from natural areas. At 1 km from adjacent natural areas, spatial stability decreased by 25, 16 and 9% for richness, visitation and fruit set, respectively, while temporal stability decreased by 39% for richness and 13% for visitation. Mean richness, visitation and fruit set also decreased with isolation, by 34, 27 and 16% at 1 km respectively. In contrast, honey bee visitation did not change with isolation and represented > 25% of crop visits in 21 studies. Therefore, wild pollinators are relevant for crop productivity and stability even when honey bees are abundant. Policies to preserve and restore natural areas in agricultural landscapes should enhance levels and reliability of pollination services.

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