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Figure S1 Responses of C. sesamiae to maize odours in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. (a) Maize plants with or without C. partellus eggs. (b) Uninfested plants versus blank control (clean air). All tests were replicated three times with 20 parasitoids per replicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference using a χ2 goodness of fit test (* <; 0.05, ** <; 0.01, *** <; 0.001, n = 60, ns = not significant, NR= no response).

Figure S2 GC-EAG recordings of responses of C. sesamiae antennae to oviposition-induced volatiles from maize landraces C-2101 (Cuba), H-2034 (Haiti) and B-3016 (Brazil). Identified compounds elicited consistent responses from three or more antennae: (a) (E)-ocimene, (b) (R)-linalool, (c) (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), (d) methyl salicylate, (e) decanal, (f) methyleugenol, (g) (E)-(1R,9S)-caryophyllene, (h) (E)-β-farnesene, (l) (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT). Simultaneous EAG and FID responses were recorded with a customised software program (Syntech, The Netherlands). Upper traces (red): EAG response; lower traces: FID response.

Figure S3 EAG responses of C. sesamiae to authentic standards of compounds identified in headspace samples of maize plants exposed to C. partellus egg deposition. All compounds were tested at 1 mg ml−1 dose and replicated five times. Response data were compared by fitting a linear mixed model with synthetic standards as fixed components and C. sesamiae (rep)/authentic standard as the random components. Asterisks indicate a significant difference between mean response to authentic standard and hexane (control) (<; 0.05).

Figure S4 GC profiles of headspace volatiles from standard commercial hybrid varieties (WS505 from Western Seed Ltd and PH4 from Kenya Seed Ltd) with and without C. partellus eggs. The identities of EAG active compounds are as follows: (a) (E)-ocimene, (b) (R)-linalool, (c) (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), (d) methyl salicylate, (e) decanal, (f) methyleugenol, (g) (E)-(1R,9S)-caryophyllene, (h) (E)-β-farnesene, (i) (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT).

Figure S5 Response of female C. sesamiae to locally and systemically collected volatiles after egg material application on maize landrace line C-2101 (Cuba) in a four-arm olfactometer bioassay. Responses were compared with samples collected from plants treated with ethanol and to a blank solvent. Each parasitoid was observed for 12 min (= 12). Mean (± SE) for time spent (min) in each part of the olfactometer is shown. Parasitoid responses were compared by anova after conversion of the data into proportions and log-ratio transformation. Different letters indicate a significant difference using Fisher’s LSD test (P <; 0.05).

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