Appendix S1 Supplemental Literature Cited.

Appendix S2 List of elevational gradients for each vertebrate group used to model climate change risk, including locality, citation, latitude, longitude, maximum mountain height in region (metres), study scale (local transect(s) = alpha; regional compilation = gamma), climate (W = humid = humidity index > 0.50; D = dry humidity index < 0.50), region of IPCC climate change predictions, the number of species, percentage of species at single elevation (% 1 elev.), and the average percent of species at the highest level of extirpation risk under: the three temperature levels (T Only), and the nine combinations of temperature and precipitation levels under both flexible and strict scenarios. AMZ = N South Amer.; CAM = Central Amer.; CAR = Caribbean Islands; CAS = Central Asia; EAF Asia; ENA = E North Amer.; SAF = S Africa; SAS = S Asia; SEA = South-East Asia; SEM = S Europe; SSA = S South America; TIB = Tibetean region; WNA = W North Amer. 1Rounded up to nearest whole number. BBreeding birds only (see McCain 2009 for citation information and additional details).

Appendix S3 Supplementary methods.

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