Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds
Article first published online: 18 OCT 2011
© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS
Volume 15, Issue 1, pages 24–33, January 2012
How to Cite
Lam, T. T.-Y., Ip, H. S., Ghedin, E., Wentworth, D. E., Halpin, R. A., Stockwell, T. B., Spiro, D. J., Dusek, R. J., Bortner, J. B., Hoskins, J., Bales, B. D., Yparraguirre, D. R. and Holmes, E. C. (2012), Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds. Ecology Letters, 15: 24–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01703.x
- Issue published online: 1 DEC 2011
- Article first published online: 18 OCT 2011
- Editor, Ran Nathan Manuscript received 16 May 2011 First decision made 24 June 2011 Second decision made 12 September 2011 Manuscript accepted 15 September 2011
Appendix S1 More details of the genome sequencing procedure and the indices used to measure gene flow.
Figure S1 Distribution of the observed and expected numbers of changes between geographical states in the U.S. and Canada.
Figure S2FST versus spatial distance.
Figure S3 Modified Slatkin-Maddison’s s (σ) plotted against the spatial distance between two localities.
Figure S4 Frequency distribution of log-likelihoods for fitting the randomly categorized rate model (RRM) to the data.
Figure S5 Parsimony estimates (σ) of the flyway-specific rates of AIV gene flow.
Table S1 Sequences used in this study.
Table S2 Summary of NA-WB-AIV nucleotide sequences used in this study.
Table S3 Levels of gene flow within and between the four American flyways.
Table S4 Inter-hemisphere AIV gene flow.
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