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Keywords:

  • Bycatch;
  • Ips sexdentatus;
  • kairomones;
  • Lindgren multiple funnel traps;
  • pheromones;
  • predators;
  • Temnochila caerulea;
  • Thanasimus formicarius;
  • Theysohn slot traps
  • 1
    Thanasimus formicarius and Temnochila caerulea, two of the main predators of Ips sexdentatus, a well-known forest pest in Southern Europe, are captured in high numbers when trapping I. sexdentatus as a result of the kairomonal effect of the lures used.
  • 2
    A preliminary field trial showed that predators could survive for at least 1 week within trapping containers, although predator mutilation and high predator death rates were observed.
  • 3
    Different modifications of conventional multiple funnel and slot traps with the objective of reducing natural enemy entrance into trap containers were bioassayed in field experiments conducted over four seasons. Based on the larger sizes of predators, different designs using welded wire-mesh screens improved performance to different extents. Providing escape windows just above the screen on multiple funnel traps gave the most promising results, including when effect sizes among all tested designs were compared.
  • 4
    Thus, a simple modification of the lowest funnel of the multiple funnel traps would reduce the bycatch of T. formicarius and T. caerulea, hence improving the efficiency of trapping programmes by lowering the likely impact on natural populations of these predators.