Biofilm susceptibility to metal toxicity
Article first published online: 28 JUN 2004
Volume 6, Issue 12, pages 1220–1227, December 2004
How to Cite
Harrison, J. J., Ceri, H., Stremick, C. A. and Turner, R. J. (2004), Biofilm susceptibility to metal toxicity. Environmental Microbiology, 6: 1220–1227. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00656.x
- Issue published online: 28 JUN 2004
- Article first published online: 28 JUN 2004
- Received 1 April, 2004; accepted 2 April, 2004.
This study compared bacterial biofilm and planktonic cell susceptibility to metal toxicity by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the planktonic minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) using the MBEC™ device. In total, 17 metal cations and oxyanions, chosen to represent groups VIB to VIA of the periodic table, were each tested on biofilm and planktonic cultures of Escherichia coli JM109, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In contrast to control antibiotic assays, where biofilm cultures were 2 to 64 times less susceptible to killing than logarithmically growing planktonic bacteria, metal compounds killed planktonic and biofilm cultures at the same concentration in the vast majority of combinations. Our data indicate that, under the conditions reported, growth in a biofilm does not provide resistance to bacteria against killing by metal cations or oxyanions.