The aim of this work was to clarify the genetic structure of the ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tuber magnatum Pico, in a natural truffle ground located in north Italy. Ascomata of this population of T. magnatum were collected over a period of up to 5 years. For comparative analysis, T. magnatum fruit bodies of different geographical origin were also considered. We used single locus markers, such as the variable region of ribosomal genes (ITS), the β-tubulin gene and sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR), as tools to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). On the basis of the molecular results, which were indirectly supported by a karyological analysis, a self-fertilization mechanism is suggested. A SCAR region was polymorphic within the samples of the truffle ground, leading to the identification of two genotypes. In addition, both the SCAR and the ITS proved to be polymorphic among samples coming from different geographical regions, revealing a genetic differentiation in T. magnatum.