The bacterial bioaerosol community of eight swine confinement buildings (SCB) was monitored during two visits in the winter, and one during the summer. To our knowledge, culture-independent approaches and molecular biology tools such as biomass quantification and biodiversity analyses have never been applied to swine building bioaerosol analyses. Total DNA of each sample was extracted and analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis using primers targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Even though the total bacterial concentration was higher in winter than in summer, the total bacterial concentration for both seasons was 100 to1000 times higher than the total cultural bacteria. The concentration of bioaerosol was influenced by the temperature indoors, which was regulated with an electronic fan system driving warm air and particles outside of the SCB. Comparison of the DGGE profiles showed the same biodiversity in each SCB during both seasons. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a large number of sequences (93.8%) related to Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridia, and dominated by the Clostridia cluster I (C. disporicum) and the Clostridia cluster XI (C. glycolycum). The bioaerosol diversity also contained also a low proportion of Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillales–Streptococcales sequences. Analyses of the global community and phylotype diversity showed that the main source of bioaerosols could come from the pig manure slurry.
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