How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honeybee colony collapse
Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2008
© 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Volume 10, Issue 10, pages 2659–2669, October 2008
How to Cite
Higes, M., Martín-Hernández, R., Botías, C., Bailón, E. G., González-Porto, A. V., Barrios, L., del Nozal, M. J., Bernal, J. L., Jiménez, J. J., Palencia, P. G. and Meana, A. (2008), How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honeybee colony collapse. Environmental Microbiology, 10: 2659–2669. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01687.x
- Issue online: 10 SEP 2008
- Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2008
- Received 14 March, 2008; accepted 13 May, 2008.
Fig. S1. Component loading graph of measurements on the B255 colony. Correlated transformed variables matrix interpretation is: angle 0° related with absolute positive dependency, angle 180° with absolute negative dependency and angle 90° with independence.
Fig. S2. Experiment 2. Component analysis of treated and untreated hives of groups of treatment (NEG, free of infection; POS + TREATED, infection and treated; POS + UNTREATED, infection and non-treated) and bee health degrees (Phase 1, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4, Phase 5_d1, colony breakdown in 12.15.06; Phase 5_d2, colony breakdown in 04.26.07; Phase 5_d3, colony breakdown in 09.26.07; Phase 5_d4, colony breakdown in 11.11.07).
Table S1. A. Average N. ceranae spore counts in treated (CN1–CN5) and untreated (CN6–CN10) nuclei.
B. Percentage of N. ceranae-infected bees in treated (CN1–CN5) and untreated (CN6–CN10) nuclei.
Table S2. Compounds studied and detection limits (LOD) by multi-residue analysis. None of them were detected in any stored pollen samples from B225 and the nuclei analysed. Adult bee and honey analysed from B255 were also negatives.
Table S3. Palynological analysis of stored pollen collected from cells. Percentage of taxa present in stored pollen. The percentage pollen in the nuclei was calculated as the average and standard deviation of the nuclei CN1–CN10 (treated and untreated). Spring stored pollen samples were collected in June 2006. Collapse samples from B255 on the 11 December 2006 and untreated nuclei (CN6–CN10) from February to April 2007 on the collapse date. Pollen samples stored in treated nuclei (CN1–CN5) were collected when the last untreated nuclei was found dead (April 2007).
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