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Shifts in microbial and chemical patterns within the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba during a disease outbreak

Authors

  • Nicole S. Webster,

    Corresponding author
    1. Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville Mail Centre, Qld 4810, Australia.
      *E-mail n.webster@aims.gov.au; Tel. (+61) 7 4753 4151; Fax (+61) 747 725 852.
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  • Joana R. Xavier,

    1. Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics and Zoological Museum of Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Mauritskade 57, 1092 AD Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    2. CIBIO- Pólo Açores, Biology Department, University of the Azores, Rua Mãe de Deus, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugal.
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  • Marnie Freckelton,

    1. Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville Mail Centre, Qld 4810, Australia.
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  • Cherie A. Motti,

    1. Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville Mail Centre, Qld 4810, Australia.
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  • Rose Cobb

    1. Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville Mail Centre, Qld 4810, Australia.
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*E-mail n.webster@aims.gov.au; Tel. (+61) 7 4753 4151; Fax (+61) 747 725 852.

Summary

The microbial community composition in affected and unaffected portions of diseased sponges and healthy control sponges of Aplysina aerophoba was assessed to ascertain the role of microbes in the disease process. Sponge secondary metabolites were also examined to assess chemical shifts in response to infection. The microbial profile and aplysinimine levels in unaffected tissue near the lesions closely reflected those of healthy sponge tissue, indicating a highly localized disease process. DGGE detected multiple sequences that were exclusively present in diseased sponges. Most notably, a Deltaproteobacteria sequence with high homology to a coral black band disease strain was detected in all sponge lesions and was absent from all healthy and unaffected regions of diseased sponges. Other potential pathogens identified by DGGE include an environmental Cytophaga strain and a novel Epsilonproteobacteria strain with no known close relatives. The disease process also caused a major shift in prokaryote community structure at a very high taxonomic level. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, only the diseased sponges were found to contain sequences belonging to the Epsilonproteobacteria and Firmicutes, and there was a much greater number of Bacteroidetes sequences within the diseased sponges. In contrast, only the healthy sponges contained sequences corresponding to the cyanobacteria and ‘OP1’ candidate division, and the healthy sponges were dominated by Chloroflexi and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Overall bacterial diversity was found to be considerably higher in diseased sponges than in healthy sponges. These results provide a platform for future cultivation-based experiments to isolate the putative pathogens from A. aerophoba and perform re-infection trials to define the disease aetiology.

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