In previous work, several bacterial groups that show a response to fruiting bodies (the mycosphere) of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria proxima were identified. We here extend this work to a broader range of fungal fruiting bodies sampled at two occasions. PCR-DGGE analyses showed clear effects of the mycosphere of diverse fungi on the total bacterial and Pseudomonas communities in comparison with those in the corresponding bulk soil. The diversities of the Pseudomonas communities increased dramatically in most of the mycospheres tested, which contrasted with a decrease of the diversity of the total bacterial communities in these habitats. The data also indicated the existence of universal (i.e. Pseudomonas poae, P. lini, P. umsongensis, P. corrugata, P. antarctica and Rahnella aquatilis) as well as specific (i.e. P. viridiflava and candidatus Xiphinematobacter americani) fungiphiles, defined as bacteria adapted to the mycospheres of, respectively, three or more or just one fungal species. The selection of such fungiphiles was shown to be strongly related to their capacities to use particular carbonaceous compounds, as evidenced using principal components analyses of BIOLOG-based substrate utilization tests. The differentiating compounds, i.e. l-arabinose, l-leucine, m-inositol, m-arabitol, d-mannitol and d-trehalose, were tentatively linked to compounds known to occur in mycosphere exudates.
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