Plant growth and development are significantly influenced by the presence and activity of microorganisms. To date, the best-studied plant-interacting microbes are Gram-negative bacteria, but many representatives of both the high and low G+C Gram-positives have excellent biocontrol, plant growth-promoting and bioremediation activities. Moreover, actinorhizal symbioses largely contribute to the global biological nitrogen fixation and many Gram-positive bacteria promote other types of symbioses in tripartite interactions. Finally, several prominent and devastating phytopathogens are Gram-positive. We summarize the present knowledge of the beneficial and detrimental interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants to underline the importance of this particular group of bacteria.