Diverse and dynamic populations of cyanobacterial podoviruses in the Chesapeake Bay unveiled through DNA polymerase gene sequences

Authors

  • Feng Chen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Center of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA.
      *E-mail chenf@umbi.umd.edu; Tel. (+1) 410 234 8866; Fax (+1) 410 234 8896.
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  • Kui Wang,

    1. Center of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA.
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    • Equal contribution as second author.

  • Sijun Huang,

    1. Center of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA.
    2. State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.
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    • Equal contribution as second author.

  • Haiyuan Cai,

    1. Center of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA.
    2. State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.
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  • Meiru Zhao,

    1. Center of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA.
    2. State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.
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  • Nianzhi Jiao,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.
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  • K. Eric Wommack

    1. College of Marine and Earth Studies, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711, USA.
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*E-mail chenf@umbi.umd.edu; Tel. (+1) 410 234 8866; Fax (+1) 410 234 8896.

Summary

Many podoviruses have been isolated which infect marine picocyanobacteria, and they may play a potentially important role in regulating the biomass and population composition of picocyanobacteria. However, little is known about the diversity and population dynamics of autochthonous cyanopodoviruses in marine environments. Using a set of newly designed PCR primers which specifically amplify the DNA pol from cyanopodoviruses, a total of 221 DNA pol sequences were retrieved from eight Chesapeake Bay virioplankton communities collected at different times and locations. All DNA pol sequences clustered with the eight known podoviruses that infect different marine picocyanobacteria, and could be divided into at least 10 different subclusters (I-X). The presence of these cyanopodovirus genotypes based on PCR-amplification of DNA pol gene sequences was supported by the existence of similar DNA pol genotypes with metagenome libraries of Chesapeake Bay virioplankton assemblages. The composition of cyanopodoviruses in the Bay also exhibited distinct winter and summer patterns which were likely related to corresponding seasonal changes in the composition of cyanobacterial populations. Our study suggests that diverse and dynamic populations of cyanopodoviruses are present in the estuarine environment. The PCR method developed in this study provides a specific and sensitive tool to explore the abundance, distribution and phylogenetic diversity of cyanopodoviruses in aquatic environments. Linking the dynamics of host and viral populations in the natural environment is critical to broader characterization of the ecological role of virioplankton within microbial communities.

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