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Fig. S1. Temporal variations in the abundance of Nitrobacter-like NOB after changes in tillage practices in (left) the 0–5 cm soil layer, and (right) the 5–20 cm soil layer. For symbols legends, see Fig. 1. Bars are standard errors associated to treatment means (n = 4).

Fig. S2. To check if our sampling has considered most dominant nxrA sequences, rarefaction curves (with percent sequence identity of 97% similarity) were calculated for each treatment using the software FastGroupII (http://biome.sdsu.edu/fastgroup/index.htm). We provide here an example of rarefaction curve obtained for the treatment TT (Tillage), which shows that considering 70 sequences allowed to properly consider dominant ones.

Fig. S3. Temporal variations in the relative intensity of the DGGE band that corresponds to the Nitrobacter-like nxrA sequences included in the group B1 in the phylogenetic tree: ■: no-tillage controls, NN treatment; ⊟: change from no-tillage to tillage, NT treatment; □: tillage controls, TT treatment; ▒: change from tillage to no-tillage, TN treatment. For each date, values with different letters differ significantly with P < 0.05.

Fig. S4. Example of a DGGE gel obtained to characterize the genetic structure of the Nitrobacter-like NOB community obtained for soils sampled 11 months after the changes in tillage practices. NN, no-tillage control; TT, tillage control; NT, change from no-tillage to tillage; TN, change from tillage to no-tillage.

Table S1. Results (P-values) of the one-way anosim for comparisons of the Nitrobacter-like NOB community structure in the 5–20 cm soil layer between each pair of treatments for each sampling date. NN, no-tillage control; TT, tillage control; NT, change from no-tillage to tillage; TN, change from tillage to no-tillage; NS, not significant at the P level 0.06.

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