Reduced inorganic sulfur oxidation supports autotrophic and mixotrophic growth of Magnetospirillum strain J10 and Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense
Article first published online: 26 JAN 2010
© 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Volume 12, Issue 4, pages 1031–1040, April 2010
How to Cite
Geelhoed, J. S., Kleerebezem, R., Sorokin, D. Y., Stams, A. J. M. and Van Loosdrecht, M. C. M. (2010), Reduced inorganic sulfur oxidation supports autotrophic and mixotrophic growth of Magnetospirillum strain J10 and Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Environmental Microbiology, 12: 1031–1040. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02148.x
- Issue published online: 29 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 26 JAN 2010
- Received 5 June, 2009; accepted 30 November, 2009.
Magnetotactic bacteria are present at the oxic–anoxic transition zone where opposing gradients of oxygen and reduced sulfur and iron exist. Growth of non-magnetotactic lithoautotrophic Magnetospirillum strain J10 and its close relative magnetotactic Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense was characterized in microaerobic continuous culture. Both strains were able to grow in mixotrophic (acetate + sulfide) and autotrophic (sulfide or thiosulfate) conditions. Autotrophically growing cells completely converted sulfide or thiosulfate to sulfate and produced 7.5 g dry weight per mol substrate at a maximum observed growth rate of 0.09 h−1 for strain J10 and 0.07 h−1 for M. gryphiswaldense. The respiratory activity for acetate was repressed in autotrophic and also in mixotrophic cultures, suggesting acetate was used as C-source in the latter. We have estimated the proportions of substrate used for assimilatory processes and evaluated the biomass yields per mol dissimilated substrate. The yield for lithoheterotrophic growth using acetate as the C-source was approximately twice the autotrophic growth yield and very similar to the heterotrophic yield, showing the importance of reduced sulfur compounds for growth. In the draft genome sequence of M. gryphiswaldense homologues of genes encoding a partial sulfur-oxidizing (Sox) enzyme system and reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) were identified, which may be involved in the oxidation of sulfide and thiosulfate. Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is the first freshwater magnetotactic species for which autotrophic growth is shown.