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Appendix S1. Capillary pinning force acting on a bacterial cell.

Appendix S2. Growth kinetics of individual bacterial cell.

Appendix S3. Bacterial motility on partially saturated rough surface.

Fig. S1. Definition sketches of bacterial cell moving in thin water film: (A) sketch of a bacterial cell swimming in thin water film. VB is cell velocity, F(λp) and F(λn) are viscous resistive forces due to cell-surface hydrodynamic interactions for a cell moving parallel to- and normal to solid wall, respectively, and F(λ), the resultant force; and (B) sketch of capillary meniscus formed around a partially immersed spherical cell which is situated on a thin water film. Where d is water film thickness at infinite distance, Δd is the elevation of the contact line on cell surface above aqueous film interface, θ and α is contact angle and central cone angle, respectively, rC is immersed radius of the cell, R is cell radius, ΔP is the pressure difference across the free surface, and FA, FS, FN, FT, and FC is capillary force due to the pressure difference across the free surface, surface tension force acting tangentially to the interface along the contact line, the vertical component of the surface tension force, the total normal capillary stress, and frictional force caused by total normal capillary stress, respectively.

Fig. S2. (A) Definition sketch for bacterial cell motion within a roughness bond; and (B) effect of bond length on the rate of bacterial colony expansion within partially saturated surface roughness network.

Table S1. Biological and physical parameters for theoretical prediction of surface colony expansion.

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EMI_2180_sm_FigS1-2-TabS1.doc548KSupporting info item

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