The CbrAB two-component system has been described in certain species of Pseudomonads as a global regulatory system required for the assimilation of several amino acids (e.g. histidine, proline or arginine) as carbon or carbon and nitrogen sources. In this work, we used global gene expression and phenotypic analyses to characterize the roles of the CbrAB system in Pseudomonas putida. Our results show that CbrB is involved in coordination with the nitrogen control system activator, NtrC, in the uptake and assimilation of several amino acids. In addition, CbrB affects other carbon utilization pathways and a number of apparently unrelated functions, such as chemotaxis, stress tolerance and biofilm development. Based on these new findings, we propose that CbrB is a high-ranked element in the regulatory hierarchy of P. putida that directly or indirectly controls a variety of metabolic and behavioural traits required for adaptation to changing environmental conditions.