Microbial community structure of hydrothermal deposits from geochemically different vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Article first published online: 21 MAR 2011
© 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Thematic Issue: Extremophiles. Guest Editors: Ricardo Cavicchioli, Ricardo Amils, Dirk Wagner, Terry McGenity
Volume 13, Issue 8, pages 2158–2171, August 2011
How to Cite
Flores, G. E., Campbell, J. H., Kirshtein, J. D., Meneghin, J., Podar, M., Steinberg, J. I., Seewald, J. S., Tivey, M. K., Voytek, M. A., Yang, Z. K. and Reysenbach, A.-L. (2011), Microbial community structure of hydrothermal deposits from geochemically different vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Environmental Microbiology, 13: 2158–2171. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02463.x
- Issue published online: 21 AUG 2011
- Article first published online: 21 MAR 2011
- Received 3 November, 2010; accepted 29 January, 2011.
Fig. S1. Photographs of hydrothermal vent samples collected from the Rainbow and Lucky Strike vent fields. Yellow circles indicate which chimney/section was used for sampling.
Fig. S2. Rarefaction analysis illustrates the greater diversity observed in the bacterial communities of 12 hydrothermal deposit samples collected from the Rainbow and Lucky Strike vent fields.
A. Archaeal rarefaction curves at two sequence similarity levels (97% and 95%) using two different alignment/clustering methods. Note the near-asymptotic appearance of several curves suggesting nearly complete sampling of the V4 sequences.
B. Bacterial rarefaction curves.
Rb, Rainbow; LS, Lucky Strike.
Fig. S3. 16S rRNA gene surveys reveal partitioning of the archaeal and bacterial communities between the ultramafic hosted Rainbow (red) and basalt-hosted Lucky Strike (blue) vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Communities clustered using MDS of the unweighted (A and D) and weighted (B and E) UniFrac distances for archaeal (A, B) and bacterial (D, E) communities. Sorensen similarity values for archaeal (C) and bacterial (F) communities also clustered by vent site. Each point represents an individual vent sample. Results of ANOSIM analysis showing that the observed patterns are significant are presented in the bottom right or left corner of each plot. (G) Average unweighted and weighted (H) UniFrac distance within and between vent fields. Average distances were significantly different for archaeal weighted (P < 0.01) and unweighted (P < 0.001), and bacterial unweighted (P < 0.001) communities as determined by one-tailed t-tests. Sorensen similarities were also significantly different (I) for both bacteria (P < 0.001) and archaea (P < 0.001). Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean (SEM).
Fig. S4. Concentrations across a uniformly porous (φ = 0.5) 3-cm-thick chimney wall resulting from transport between seawater (at position = −3 ) and (A) 220°C Sintra vent fluid (Lucky Strike), (B) 305°C Marker 6 vent fluid (Lucky Strike), (C) 350°C Flores5 vent fluid (Rainbow) at position = 0 by diffusion only (see Fig. 4 caption for more details of calculations). Note the lack of oxidizing zone for the Rainbow chimney even with no outward advection of vent fluid.
Fig. S5. Photograph of the hydrothermal vent chimney used for samples Rb-2 and Rb-3. Note how the porous, outer layer (Rb-2) cleanly peels away from the rest of the chimney sample.
Fig. S6. Comparison of taxonomic variation in the bacterial communities of Rainbow and Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent deposits.
A. Relative abundances of epsilonproteobacterial genera observed in each vent deposit.
B. Relative abundances of gammaproteobacterial families observed in each vent deposit.
Numbers in parentheses following taxonomic classifications indicate the number of OTUs classified to that particular group. Rb, Rainbow; LS, Lucky Strike.
Table S1. Hydrothermal vent deposits used to characterize the microbial communities from the Rainbow (Rb) and Lucky Strike (LS) vent fields.
Table S2. Comparison of OTU richness and Chao1 diversity estimates generated from two different clustering methods for archaeal and bacterial communities of hydrothermal vent deposits collected along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Table S3. SIMPER analysis was used to identify archaeal genera responsible for the dissimilarity observed in the communities of Rainbow and Lucky Strike vent deposits.
Table S4. End-member fluid chemistry of samples used for microbial community characterizations.
Table S5. SIMPER analysis was used to identify bacterial genera responsible for the dissimilarity observed in the communities of Rainbow and Lucky Strike vent deposits.
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